知乎:建国后到改革开放前经济发展怎么样?

2022.01.19 07:26 xiaucescu 知乎:建国后到改革开放前经济发展怎么样?

建国后到改革开放前经济发展怎么样? - Canicularis的回答 - 知乎 https://www.zhihu.com/question/382972689/answe2238707049
计画经济体制下的经济统计数据,很多未必是虚假,但其含金量是非常可疑的,就随便举几个例子:
1、改革开放前中国的小学教育被戏称为“三、六、九”,即账面上做到了90%的入学率,能坚持读完的只有60%,真正具有小学文化水平的却只有30%。
建国三十年旧文盲没有扫除干净,新文盲还在大量产生,全国一亿多成人处于文盲、半文盲状态,职工里初中以下占70%,实际文化程度更低,农村青壮年有30%是文盲、半文盲。
究其原因就是片面追求入学人数,却无视后续的财政投入,1965年每个中学生经费为88.89元,到1976年下降到36.42元,1965年每个小学生经费19.96元,到76年下降到14.43元,同时期还有近1000万平方米的校舍被挪用,相当于近5年教育基建投资总和,同时全国中小学危房数量高达5400万平方米,倒塌事故时有发生。
2、中国煤炭资源客观上就呈北多南少分布,但当时却大搞南方煤炭资源开发,广东省本就轻工、热带经济作物发达,却要强行上马煤铁工业,全省除了韶关、广州、北江三个省属钢厂外其余30多县还投资办小钢厂,由于广州煤炭频发,大多采用能耗极高的电炉钢,造成全省电力紧缺,而耗费了全省之力的广钢自建成起年年亏损,广东全省的轻工业利润全部投入了这个无底洞。
同时还强行开采一些根本没有价值的劣矿,如陆丰煤炭煤层厚度只有0.3米,万吨煤坑木消耗500立方米,吨煤成本达100元以上,有的煤热值只有一、二千卡,生产出来的煤还不够煤炭自己消耗。
更可笑的是江苏在省内都要扭转北煤南运,放着煤炭资源丰富的徐州地区不去投资,却在苏南大量开矿,仅报废的煤炭就多达24座,浪费资金2.34亿元。
3、之前流行在全国搞“五小建设”,兴建了大批效率低下,长期亏损的小化肥、小钢铁企业,1978年工业部门亏损40亿元,这些五小企业就占了22亿。全国有小型合成氨厂1539个,产能却只有874万吨,其中70%处于亏损状态。硫酸厂470个,规模不足2万吨的达93%。烧硷厂248个,最大的年产也只有10万吨,轮胎厂全国80个,平均产能只有14万套。
这些小企业造成的浪费极其惊人,当时30万吨合成氨工厂设备消耗标准为1000-1200万大卡,而小化肥厂需要2600万大卡。
小煤矿回采率只有10%,而同时期大型煤矿能达50%。大型炼钢企业综合焦比为623公斤,而小钢厂平均达950公斤。
4、1978年中国机床总数达267万台,看似数量颇为可观,但其实由于钢铁行业供应能力不足,只能满足1/3-1/4的需求,近半数机床完全是摆在工厂里闲置,没有任何价值。
全国1000吨以上水压机生产了48台,设计产能55.6万吨,数量上与欧洲齐平,但实际上由于工艺不完整,实际产能只有一半,大型锻件仍然需要进口。发电设备三大主机能力达500多万千瓦,但高压输变电能力只有400万千瓦,配套的机、泵、阀和仪表更是严重缺乏,大批电力无处可用。
根据一机部统计,一机部系统2.6万多种产品,相当于世界五十年代及以前水平的占了60%,相当于六十年代水平的占35%,比较先进的,达到七十年代水平的只有5%。
5、各部门之间重复建设也极为惊人,8000吨水压力产能尚不能全部利用,有的部又在它处新建了6000吨与8000吨水压机,农机部安排生产的船用柴油机,其它部局又投资另建了两个厂,一机部还富余大量铸造产能,五机部又引进了7条铸造线,却不知道用在哪里。
广东一省就有拖拉机厂10个,平均产量却只有2500台,机床厂全省27个,其中14个厂重复生产8个品种,有的厂一年只生产几台或几十台。
大庆油田建设中各部门各自为政,结果先是修建了让通铁路、新增了一万多辆油罐车,然后又建设了2500多公里的管道,导致铁路运力闲置2/3,几千辆油罐车毫无用处。为发展胜利油田,先在胶州湾建设了黄岛油港和管线,然后又修建了870公里的鲁宁管道,结果两者都无法充分利用。
1979年全国有货运汽车114万辆,但交通部门只有16万辆,非交通部门的汽车使用效率极低,平均三辆才抵交通部门一辆,而且油耗高,每年多花燃料100多万吨,使国家少收利税10亿元。
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2022.01.19 07:26 Vapidmusings Jack Black & Jimmy Fallon - "More Than Words"

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2022.01.19 07:26 Yanele 100$ question

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2022.01.19 07:26 HOLDGMEBROTHERS Have you ever met your idol? How was it?

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2022.01.19 07:26 FolkusOnMe Following a Bob Ross video but with ProCreate

I was trying to use procreate to paint a bob ross video but I was hoping I could get some help?
Is there a way I can make the paintbrush interact with colours I've already put on the canvas? At the moment I'm painting in one colour, then the next, and the smudging them together but I'm hoping there's a better way.
Also, he uses this one thin brush to paint things like the trees (does a brush like this exist?), and the way he pushes against the canvas kind of displaces some of the existing paint, while also blending a little- how can I do that with procreate?
He also pushes with another brush to "create mist" and I guess I'm kinda just struggling trying to translate his physical painting process to digital painting?
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2022.01.19 07:26 No_Dragonfly3138 How much does DMT usually sell for? I'm not trying to source, just getting a feel for the market. Tia!

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2022.01.19 07:26 Bozzaholic Omicron symptoms: 9 signs most common in people fully vaccinated against Covid

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2022.01.19 07:26 PuzzleheadedCar505 Slider increment value

Hi all!
Do you know a way to set a slider value to increment by 10, so when sliding from 0 to 100 I'd like to see: 0, 10, 20, 30...100 instead of: 0, 1, 2, 3...99, 100.
Thank you!
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2022.01.19 07:26 Gazza0987654321 Secret vasectomy

My partner and I have 3 kids, she wants more and I don't. She said if we don't have any more kids it's over, she would rather break up the family just so she can find someone who will give her another child.
Looks like we will be separating, but be living together until I find some place to live. I will be getting a vasectomy while I'm still living there but I don't want her to know.
I'm not asking for people's moral feedback here, but I do want some advice on how I can go about keeping this a secret. Obviously recovery is the part that could make it obvious I have had a vasectomy so am looking for ideas on how I can hide this (maybe go to my parents for a few days, but not sure what reason to use). Or could I say I've pulled my back and stay in bed for a few days.
Kids are young 2, 4 and 7.
I will be getting no scapel and cortorized.
I'm not looking for judgement, just suggestions.
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2022.01.19 07:26 stassio Maltodextrin in Donut Icing?

I am trying not o add volume to my donut icing without making it much sweeter than it already is. My icings are basically milk/purée/extracts, salt, and powdered sugar. Would adding maktodextrin or subbing some powdered sugar for maktodextrin help provide more body?
I am satisfied with the flavor and sweetness of my icings currently but I am worried that this relies on my leaving only a very thin layer of icing on the donut which is fine for a glazed donut but not really the look or mouth feel I’m going for with the iced donuts.
Also if this helps, I’m not going for a butter cream or royal icing, I want to improve on my typical top frosted/iced donut.
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2022.01.19 07:26 bitchyswiftie Well I hope Kevin got his ₱900

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2022.01.19 07:26 josethepatient 22M wanting to chat with F

Not like all the other horny fucks on here
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2022.01.19 07:26 jobsinanywhere Some SHIB Starts Going Back into Circulation, Here's Why

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2022.01.19 07:26 Bozzaholic Boris Jonson Covid announcement: PM 'to scrap' Plan B measures in England

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2022.01.19 07:26 Kikomat- Transfer BDC onto a Ledger?

Hey Guys,
im in this Cryptogame since 1,5 years now and i safed a good amount of different coins now. To secure myself i think about getting a cold wallet, i heard a Ledger is pretty much the safest thing i can purchase.
The thing is i cant really find any infos, if i can swap any Coins (or Tokens, like BDC) onto my Ledger.
If it is possible, do i get the reflextions, by holding Coins in the Ledger? I cant imagine this with an offline wallet, where should this Coins or Tokens be coming from.
Some of u using a Legder and have some experience to share?
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2022.01.19 07:26 rafalehtonen UmeeCrossChain

Hi! Could someone tell me the principals of this project. Is the token launching in feb 2022? For some reason I can't messafe them on Telegram.
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2022.01.19 07:26 Mysterious_Peach3436 Gotham Alert

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2022.01.19 07:26 No_Ask8109 I was hesitant to post this, first off I don't want to come in the way of Watch Face Wednesday so apologies, however after reading some interesting posts from you guys with regards to the state of wear os and/or GW 4, or why people think of leaving wear os, this shows real-life exp. outside wear os.

I was hesitant to post this, first off I don't want to come in the way of Watch Face Wednesday so apologies, however after reading some interesting posts from you guys with regards to the state of wear os and/or GW 4, or why people think of leaving wear os, this shows real-life exp. outside wear os. submitted by No_Ask8109 to WearOS [link] [comments]


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